Together with colleagues at Atlantia Clinical Trials and DSM Nutritional Products we have investigated how polyphenol-rich extracts modulate the gut microbiota conferring cardiovascular benefits to humans. The 4 week supplementation with the water-soluble tomato extract Fruitflow® led to decreased trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels in fasting blood and urine, along with significant changes in microbiome composition. The results (published in the Journal of Nutrition) support earlier findings that polyphenol-rich extracts can lower plasma TMAO in overweight and obese adults related to gut microbiota modulation.